On 30th September 2022, the President of the Republic of Kenya and Commander-in-Chief of the Defense Forces appointed a Working Party on Education Reform in Kenya. The task force is chaired by Prof. Raphael Munavu, a well-known educationist and lecturer.  The task force was given a period of six months to complete their work and are expected to issue a progress report every two months to the President and a final report presented after six months. The working party is expected to invite and consider views from sector stakeholders and members of the public.


KENAPCO is a registered association of private colleges in Kenya with over 400 members as at 31st October 2022.

We assist the Government and our members to strengthen the provision of affordable, high-quality training in the TVET sector. We support Government to transit as many students to post-secondary institutions as much as possible

We value professionalism, efficiency, and effectiveness in service delivery.

The formation of the CBC taskforce is a great opportunity for KENAPCO to make recommendations on a number of areas that touch on the TVET sector.


The terms of reference for the working party are:

1. On Basic Education;

  1. To cause and undertake a summative evaluation of Kenya’s competency-based curriculum;
  2. To assess and recommend an appropriate structure to implement the competency-based curriculum;
  3. To study all laws governing the basic education subsector and make recommendations for review of these legislations with a view to addressing duplication, ambiguities, efficiency constraints, and improving linkages.
  4. To study, assess and make recommendations on;
    1. The conceptualization and implementation of key tenets guiding the competency-based approach including but not limited to value-based education, community service learning, parental empowerment, and engagement;
    1. The assessment and examination framework;
    1. The quality assurance and standards framework;
    1. The teacher education and training framework for both pre-service and in-service;
    1. The teacher deployment framework;
    1.  The technology for curriculum delivery improved learning outcomes and education management;
    1. The governance mechanisms of learning institutions and sharing of resources across schools and TVET institutions
    1. To ensure maximum utilization of public resources for improved learning outcomes; and the public-school categorization policies and implications on access, transition, and cost.
  5. To review and recommend appropriate financing framework including capitation and minimum essential package grants for all levels of basic education;
  6. To review and recommend equitable access to education, especially for those facing social, economic, and geographic marginalization, vulnerable populations, children, and persons with special needs,
  7. To review and recommend an appropriate framework on the management and coordination of bursaries and scholarships for secondary school students;
  8. To review and recommend a framework for physical and infrastructure development and coordination of public-private partnerships for improved access and quality provision; and
  9. To review and recommend a tracking system to capture and enroll children of school age to ensure universal access to pre-primary, primary, and secondary education.


  1. To review and recommend a governance and financing framework for TVET training and development, university education, research, and training;
  2. To study all laws governing the tertiary education subsector and make recommendations for review of these legislations with a  view to streamlining effectiveness and efficiency in the subsector.
  3. To recommend a framework for operationalizing the national open university of Kenya and a framework on open, distance, and e-line learning (ODEL);
  4. To make recommendations for streamlining continuity in TVET and university education transition;
  5. To review and recommend legislation to facilitate the amalgamation of HELB, TVET, and University Funding Boards with a view of harmonizing and merging all tertiary education funding entities.


  1. The education reform taskforce is an opportunity for issues that KENAPCO has raised over time to be addressed once and for all.
  2. An opportunity to establish national skills council
  3. An opportunity to be heard


  1. TVET is now anchored  TVET in Law TVET Act of  2013
  2. TVET is a state department
  3. More students have enrolled in TVET institutions
  4. There is recognition and appreciation of TVET in Kenya
  5. The State Department recognizes both KATTI and KENAPCO
  6. TVETA and CDACC are a creation of TVET Act of 2013


  1. Encroachment of certificate and diploma programmes by universities
  2. No funding for students studying in Private TVET institutions by Government /HELB
  3. No placement of private students by KUCCPS
  4. Preference of university education over TVET by parents and other stakeholders


  • High dropout rates due to fees payment   challenges
  • Inadequate industrial attachment opportunities
  • Early pregnancies
  • Unemployment after college
  • Drug and substance abuse


  • Inability to pay fees on time
  • Poverty levels very high  


  • Inadequate pedagogical skills
  • Low salaries paid by colleges

Proprietors of Private TVET colleges

  • High   rental charges for  office space
  • Very exorbitant fees charged by regulators (TVETA/KNDI )
  • High cost of living
  • Lack of incentives by government
  • Too many licenses

Partners /Donors

  • So many contradicting regulations causing a lot of confusion
  • Bureaucracy red tape
  • Lack of incentives by County and National Governments to those organizations supporting the TVET sector.


  • Inadequate resources to support all planned programmes
  • Delay in disbursement of resources to colleges and other institutions
  • A lot of Bureaucracy all over
  • Many conflicting acts of parliament, rules and regulations making it difficult to operate.

On basic education

KENAPCO recommends the following with respect to;

  • “The teacher education and training framework for both pre-service and in-service”
  • The entry grade for Diploma in Primary Education should be maintained at a Mean grade C Plain without the requirement of C plain in Mathematics, English, Kiswahili, and C plain in one humanities, C plain in one science.
  • The entry grade for Diploma in Secondary Education – Science and Arts option is KCSE C+ same as the entry requirement for bachelor’s degrees. This requirement should be dropped and the entry requirement pegged at C plain with C plain in three teaching subjects.
  • The in-service programme should be retained.
  • Wearing of school uniforms should be scrapped in Teacher Training Colleges
  1. “The governance mechanisms of learning institutions and sharing of resources across schools and TVET institutions;”

KENAPCO recommends;

  • Institutions located in one place should be encouraged to share resources like playing fields/workshops/conference halls/water resources.
  • This should apply to both public and private institutions.

 On Tertiary and University Education;

  1. “To review and recommend a governance and financing framework for TVET training and development, university education, research and training”

KENAPCO recommends;

  • Come up with only One Funding Board   to govern and finance TVET and University Education, Training, Research and infrastructural development.
  • Representation in the Fund board should be from both Private and public colleges and universities.  
  • The TVET and Universities Act should be reviewed to reflect this change.
  • “To study all laws governing the tertiary education subsector and make recommendations for review of these legislations with a view to streamlining effectiveness and efficiency in the subsector”.

KENAPCO recommends;

a) TVET Curriculum Development, Assessment, and Certification Council (TVET CDACC) should remain under TVETA and be funded adequately to offer CBET Assessments

  • That TVETA be the sole Authority to inspect, license, register, and accredit TVET institutions. For the avoidance of doubt, the Authority should be the only body with the power to perform the functions set out in section 7(1) of the TVET Act 2013.
  • The law should be amended such that a person who without the power of the Authority under the Act purports to license, accredit, recognize, audit, inspect, index students or collect a fee or a charge from a TVET College or a student commits an offense and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding two million shillings or imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or both like it is the case with the Universities Act, 2012.
  • TVETA should drop charging the Annual quality assurance fee of KShs 500 per student enrolled. This is because the authority is funded by the state department of TVET. Institutions have passed the same to students making access difficult.
  • The Ministry of Education Science and Technology should ensure that HELB loans are extended to all students   including those studying in private colleges
  • KUCCPS should create a self-sponsored portal for private students who are willing to pursue studies in other colleges other than public TVET institutions. They should place Certificate and Diploma students in both Public and Private Colleges.
  • On open, distance and e-line learning (ODEL); the Government should make it official and ensure internet connectivity in all parts of the country to ensure ODEL becomes a reality. All assessment bodies should be able to offer examinations and assessments online.
  • The Kenya Technical Trainers College should be expanded to train more teachers and since it can’t train all teachers, the space should be opened to other colleges to offer training of technical teachers.
  • Government capitation should be availed to all students studying in both public and private TVET institutions without discrimination. This is to ensure a 100% transition to post-secondary institutions.
  • Section 20 (1) (e) of The Universities Act 2012 should be amended to bar universities from awarding; diplomas and certificates and only offer postgraduate diplomas and certificates.
  • To promote an effective transition of students from TVET institutions, to the university level, there is a need to harmonize the entry behavior and recognize prior learning and ensure credit transfer of diploma holders is possible.
  • Support the creation of the national skills council to engage all skills providers in delivering employment skills for at least five million youth in the next five years.

It is our belief that if the above recommendations are adopted; the standards of education in Kenya will be maintained at very high levels.

  1. A policy framework on Education sector as a whole would be an effective  route, a clear partnership with government i.e MOE & Private Educators.
  1. An establishment of an Education Review commission so that Education reforms aren’t a political season promises but continuous research and constant reviews as need arises so that Kenya can compete globally in producing high quality labor.

________________ _________________

Benjamin Mutie Ekrah Ndungu

Chairman Secretary General